The twentieth century has been called the hydrocarbon century due to the abundance of fossil fuels, and their contribution to human development. Fossil fuels were formed over millions of years by the decomposing remains of plants and animals under immense heat and pressure. This process resulted in energy laden fuels coal, petroleum, and natural gas, which together have generated most of the energy consumed globally for over a century, paving the way for continued advancement and new inventions.
Fossil fuels are currently the most economically available source of power for both personal and commercial uses. Petroleum fuels our cars and thirst for plastics, while natural gas and coal heat and electrify our homes. Mass transportation is also largely propelled by fossil fuels. In 2005, more than 3/4 of total world energy consumption was through the use of fossil fuels. Petroleum led with over 43.4 percent of the world’s total energy consumption, followed by natural gas (15.6 percent) and coal (8.3 percent). North America is the largest consumer of fossil fuels, utilizing nearly 25 percent of the world’s resources.
Long thought to be inexhaustible, fossil fuels have been used extensively since the Industrial Revolution. However, many believe that the world is using fossil fuels at an unsustainable rate. Some experts believe that the world has already reached its peak for oil extraction and production, and that it is only a matter of time before natural gas and coal follow suit. These near-term concerns about oil supply have led to increasing focus on, and exploration of, alternative sources of petroleum, such as in tar sands and oil shale.
To release their stored energy, fossil fuels must be burned. It is during this combustion process that a variety of emissions and particulates, including ash, are released into the atmosphere. Primary releases are sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which can be harmful to the environment. They can combine with water vapor in the air to form acidic compounds that create acid rain, and burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that scientists believe is key factor in global climate change.
There are also environmental risks associated with extracting, transporting, and utilizing fossil fuels. Mining for coal and drilling for oil are especially hazardous because the digging of massive mines and wells can change the surrounding landscapes and bring massive amounts of salt water to the surface which can damage nearby ecosystems without proper treatment and sequestration. Natural gas extraction is somewhat safer, but can also be hazardous. While there are regulations in place that attempts to minimize the risks, it is impossible to eliminate them completely. However, regulation is not sufficient; there must be continued research in developing new technologies for both fossil fuel and renewable energy, in addition to increasing conservation measures. Environmental Literacy Council
http://www.enviroliteracy.org/subcategory.php/21.html, access on March 14th, 2010.
According to paragraph 4, all the elements below result from the burning of fossil fuels, EXCEPT